Guest Post: Literacy in Mathematics

Our guest author today is Stacie Leavitt, an instructor at AcerPlacer who recently got a degree in math education from Weber State University. She will begin teaching for the Weber County School District this Fall.

A few years back there was a standard set in education that literacy should not be taught in our English classes alone, but that it should be taught in every single subject matter. Now for the History or Spanish teachers in a school, that may not feel like too high of a demand, but for math teachers it came as an abrupt surprise and a rather daunting task. “Now we’re not only teaching them math, but we have to teach them how to read too?! Those are almost entirely unrelated subjects!” As such, literacy is still highly overlooked when it comes to most math classrooms. However, if we take a deeper look at what literacy really is, maybe we can find more connection there than we thought.

Literacy in its most basic definition is the ability to read and write, but The National Literacy Trust includes [that], ‘A literate person is able to communicate effectively with others and to understand written information.’ So let’s dive a little bit deeper into these definitions. What exactly do we read and write? Our language is a mixture of symbols that when put in a certain order then mean a certain thing. We then need to be able to decode these symbols, use them to communicate, and be able to write about them. Similarly, much of math is being able to read the symbols to grasp their meaning, communicate about them, and then use those same symbols to write down your response. In fact the techniques used to decode and comprehend a paragraph are very similar to those used to decode and comprehend an equation. So how are literacy and math any different? They’re not really, it’s just teaching a new language within our own language. This is the idea that if we were to emphasize in our classrooms, we would not only be able to teach literacy but we would actually be able to teach math better and connect it more to skills that many of our students already have.

Now as a teacher myself, some of the main things that I have observed in different classrooms that separate literacy and mathematics are the absence of real world texts, few to no story problems, and the emphasis on the procedures instead of actual comprehension. In many of these classrooms, I can understand why a teacher would feel to build their curriculum this way due to the demographics of the school where maybe the majority don’t have high levels of literacy or math skills, are ESL learners, or their family situation can make it almost impossible to assign homework to take home. However this is exactly the classroom situation where there needs to be more focus on decoding and comprehension of text, especially the symbols and their meaning. Authentic math texts would be great for students to be exposed to in order to help them realize that math is more than just a process. It’s something people have wondered about, written about, built, discovered, and created. It’s both true and fallible and it’s ok to make mistakes in. Similarly real world story problems (not ones about buying 60 watermelons) can help them see how they can use these decoding and comprehension tools in a work or real world setting. But the biggest problem of them all is the the focus on the procedure. When this is overemphasized in a classroom it cuts off the need for students to become literate in math. There’s no need to decode the equations, comprehend what they’re meaning and what they do end up writing isn’t actually being understood. Their ability to tell you what they wrote and what it means is completely gone. Teachers wonder why, and honestly it’s because we don’t teach enough literacy in math.

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Women and Math in the Media: A Commentary

As a math teacher, one of the biggest obstacles I face when teaching students is math anxiety. Many students have it to varying degrees. Specifically, I’ve been thinking about how math anxiety tends to fall along gender lines and, of course, The Big Bang Theory [TBBT].

Before I start, I just want to be clear: I don’t hate TBBT (I actually find it pretty funny), and I certainly don’t think that it’s the cause of the problems that I want to talk about. However, I do feel that it is a very visible symptom of a larger over-arching problem. Besides, no one will have read the research articles I’ll be quoting, but most people will have seen at least one episode of one of the most popular currently-running TV shows, so it gets to be the unfortunate lightening rod for my disappointment.

For those who may have not heard of TBBT, it is a show about scientists hanging out and being nerdy. It starts out with the beautiful Penny moving across the hall from Leonard and Sheldon, two physicists doing research at Caltech. That’s a fairly straightforward sitcom setup. However, several criticisms have been leveled at the show because of its use of stereotypes as part of its humor. Penny is the beautiful, normal person. The scientists are men, socially inept, and unable to talk to Penny easily. Why is this a problem?

This reinforces some harmful stereotypes about women in science (and scientists generally, but we’ll put those aside for a moment).  Penny is often shown as completely clueless about various science and math topics and has to have them explained to her by the shows male cast members. In this, the writers cast Penny as the audience, who the writers assume know nothing about the topics on the show. For the first several seasons, there are no other female leads. This is alleviated a little bit with the introduction of Bernadette and Amy, a microbiologist and neurologist respectively. However, for their first few seasons, both are portrayed as socially awkward and admirers of Penny’s beauty. In short, it went from saying that “girls can’t do science” to “pretty girls can’t do science.” Finally, in the most recent seasons, Bernadette and Amy have taken on greater roles and shed some of their questionable character traits to become better female role models.

Maybe you’re wondering why I’m making such a big deal of an admittedly small part of the show. It’s all in good fun, right? I point it out because the way women are portrayed in media affects how girls and women feel about their abilities to perform in math and science. Multiple studies have shown that women report higher levels of math anxiety than men, and while the reason for this is up for some debate (Jameson & Fusco, 2014), studies have found that examples and role models can have positive or negative effects. For example, elementary-aged girls are more likely to have math anxiety and believe in the stereotype that boys are better at math than girls if their female teacher also has math anxiety (Beilock et al., 2010). Negativity about math is contagious, even if it is left unspoken.

On the other hand, positive portrayals of women in careers and science in magazines have been shown to help improve women’s performance on a math exam (Luong & Knobloch-Westerwick, 2017). Notice that wasn’t long-term exposure to those stereotypes, that was simply reading a few pages from a single magazine immediately before taking the exam. So if those good stereotypes helped after just a few minutes, even if that effect was temporary, imagine what constant exposure over the course of an entire TV show could do for a child?

As I mentioned, TBBT has definitely taken steps in the right direction in this regard. I am certainly not trying to get people to hate the show, but rather point to it as one of the most visible examples. However, the myths and stereotypes about women and math persist across many shows and stories in culture today. While having more positive role models of women in math and science won’t magically fix every issue faced by women in STEM fields, it could help alleviate at least the math anxiety faced by girls becoming women.

I’m not asking for anything drastic. All I am asking for are a few more Bernadettes and a few fewer Pennys.


  • Beilock, S. L., Gunderson, E. A., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. C. (2010). Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(5), 1860–1863. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910967107
  • Jameson, M. M., & Fusco, B. R. (2014). Math anxiety, math self-concept, and math self-efficacy in adult learners compared to traditional undergraduate students. Adult Education Quarterly, 64(4), 306–322.
  • Luong, K. T., & Knobloch-Westerwick, S. (2017). Can the Media Help Women Be Better at Math? Stereotype Threat, Selective Exposure, Media Effects, and Women’s Math Performance: Media and Stereotype Threat. Human Communication Research, 43(2), 193–213. https://doi.org/10.1111/hcre.12101